# Technical Analysis from A to Z

by Steven B. Achelis

KAGI

Overview

Kagi charts are believed to have been created around the time that the Japanese stock market began trading in the 1870s. Kagi charts display a series of connecting vertical lines where the thickness and direction of the lines are dependent on the price action. The charts ignore the passage of time.

If prices continue to move in the same direction, the vertical line is extended. However, if prices reverse by a "reversal" amount, a new kagi line is then drawn in a new column. When prices penetrate a previous high or low, the thickness of the kagi line changes.

Kagi charts were brought to the United States by Steven Nison when he published the book, Beyond Candlesticks.

Interpretation

Kagi charts illustrate the forces of supply and demand on a security:

- A series of thick lines shows that demand is exceeding supply (a rally).

- A series of thin lines shows that supply is exceeding demand (a decline).

- Alternating thick and thin lines shows that the market is in a state of equilibrium (i.e., supply equals demand).

The most basic trading technique for kagi charts is to buy when the kagi line changes from thin to thick and to sell when the kagi line changes from thick to thin.

A sequence of higher-highs and higher-lows on a kagi chart shows the underlying forces are bullish. Whereas, lower-highs and lower-lows indicate underlying weakness.

Example

The following chart shows a 0.02-point kagi chart and a classic bar chart of Euro Dollars.

I drew "buy" arrows on the bar chart when the kagi lines changed from thin to thick and drew "sell" arrows when the lines changed from thick to thin.

Calculation

The first closing price in a kagi chart is the "starting price." To draw the first kagi line, today's close is compared to the starting price.

- If today's price is greater than or equal to the starting price, then a thick line is drawn from the starting price to the new closing price.

- If today's price is less than or equal to the starting price, then a thin line is drawn from the starting price to the new closing price.

To draw subsequent lines, compare the closing price to the tip (i.e. bottom or top) of the previous kagi line:

- If the price continued in the same direction as the previous line, the line is extended in the same direction, no matter how small the move.

- If the price moved in the opposite direction by at least the reversal amount (this may take several days), then a short horizontal line is drawn to the next column and a new vertical line is drawn to the closing price.

- If the price moved in the opposite direction of the current column by less than the reversal amount no lines are drawn.

If a thin kagi line exceeds the prior high point on the chart, the line becomes thick. Likewise, if a thick kagi line falls below the prior low point, the line becomes thin.

*Technical Analysis from A to Z*is reproduced here with permission from the author and publisher.

### Contents

- Preface
- Acknowledgments
- Terminology
- To Learn More
- Bibliography
- About the Author
- Technical Analysis
- Price Fields
- Charts
- Support & Resistance
- Trends
- Moving Averages
- Indicators
- Market Indicators
- Line Studies
- Periodicity
- The Time Element
- Conclusion
- Absolute Breadth Index
- Accumulation/Distribution
- Accumulation Swing Index
- Advance/Decline Line
- Advance/Decline Ratio
- Advancing-Declining Issues
- Advancing, Declining, Unchanged Volume
- Andrews' Pitchfork
- Arms Index
- Average True Range
- Bollinger Bands
- Breadth Thrust
- Bull/Bear Ratio
- Candlesticks - Japanese
- CANSLIM
- Chaikin Oscillator
- Commodity Channel Index
- Commodity Selection Index
- Correlation Analysis
- Cumulative Volume Index
- Cycles
- Demand Index
- Detrended Price Oscillator
- Directional Movement
- Dow Theory
- Ease of Movement
- Efficient Market Theory
- Elliott Wave Theory
- Envelopes (Trading Bands)
- Equivolume/Candlevolume
- Fibonacci Studies
- Four Percent Model
- Fourier Transform
- Fundamental Analysis
- Gann Angles
- Herrick Payoff Index
- Interest Rates
- Kagi
- Large Block Ratio
- Linear Regression Lines
- MACD
- Mass Index
- McClellan Oscillator
- McClellan Summation Index
- Median Price
- Member Short Ratio
- Momentum
- Money Flow Index
- Moving Averages
- Negative Volume Index
- New Highs-Lows Cumulative
- New Highs-New Lows
- New Highs/Lows Ratio
- Odd Lot Balance Index
- Odd Lot Purchases/Sales
- Odd Lot Short Ratio
- On Balance Volume
- Open Interest
- Open-10 TRIN
- Option Analysis
- Overbought/Oversold
- Parabolic SAR
- Patterns
- Percent Retracement
- Performance
- Point & Figure
- Positive Volume Index
- Price and Volume Trend
- Price Oscillator
- Price Rate-of-Change
- Public Short Ratio
- Puts/Calls Ratio
- Quadrant Lines
- Relative Strength, Comparative
- Relative Strength Index
- Renko
- Speed Resistance Lines
- Spreads
- Standard Deviation
- STIX
- Stochastic Oscillator
- Swing Index
- Three Line Break
- Time Series Forcast
- Tirone Levels
- Total Short Ratio
- Trade Volume Index
- Trendlines
- TRIX
- Typical Price
- Ultimate Oscillator
- Upside/Downside Ratio
- Upside/Downside Volume
- Vertical Horizonal Filter
- Volatility, Chaikin's
- Volume
- Volume Oscillator
- Volume Rate-of-Change
- Weighted Close
- Williams' Accumulation/Distribution
- Williams' %R
- Zig Zag